Also from a Human Resources Management perspective, it is important we know more about the new “employees” – robots we see arrive.
We have made some research and will try to update this material when we do see development. It sounds perhaps weird today, but we believe it will be Human Resources Management who will be the ones who shape the working frames for robots at work, so to speak.

Our image of a robot is often focused on “something” that performs a programmed task. A robot that can look like an arm or a human.
But robots also have more technical things to do, things/tasks that are not about making a move or a direct action. Der kan være robots som exists as a computer program, solving tasks inside the computer, eater out from some rules, some knowledge or from a pre-programmed AI base, it can be making a booking, select documents, sorting of documents, making the bookkeeping.


In the year 1921, the Czech dramatist “Karel Capek” coins the world by using the word robot in his play Rossum’s Universal Robots (R.U.R).

This word robot is derived from a Czech word which means “compulsory labor.”

“Runaround” was composed by Asimov robots in the year 1942, it held the “Three rules for robots”:

  1. Robots are not harmful to the humans, or through working, permit a human to come and damage.
  2. A robot must follow the commands given by human beings apart from where such instructions would conflict with the First Law of Robotics.
  3. A robot must defend its own survival providing such safety does not clash with the First and the Second Law of Robotics.

In the year 1956, George Devol and Joseph Engelberger established the first robot company.

In the year 1959, computer-assisted manufacturing was verified at MIT.

UNIMATE: The first industrialized robot was online in a General Motors automobile plant, in the year 1961.

1963 was a revolutionary year, the first computer controlled robotic arm was designed and it was named as Rancho Arm. The invention was basically for the handicapped peoples.

The inventions in the field of Robotics were never-ending and gave human beings a sudden surprising gift as & when launched. After Rancho’s Arm, various other inventions too were done, but all of the above was the first among all.

Different Branches Occupied in the Development of Robotics

Robotics in contrast to other branches is a reasonably new domain of engineering. It is a multi-disciplinary domain. The different branches occupied in the development of Robotics are:

Mechanical Engineering
Deals with the machinery & structure of the Robots.

Electrical Engineering
Deals with the controlling & intelligence (sensing) of Robots.

Computer Engineering
Deals with the movement development and observation of Robots.


Classification of Robots

Robots are categorized depending upon the circuits of the Robots and the variety of application it can perform. The robots are classified into three types:

Simple level Robots
These are automatic machines which do not contain complex circuit. They are developed just to extend human potential. For Example- Washing Machine.

Middle-level Robots
These robots are programmed but can never be reprogrammed. These robots contain sensor based circuit & can perform multiple tasks. For Example- Fully Automatic Washing Machine.

Complex level Robots
These robots are programmed and can be reprogrammed as well. They contain complex model based circuit. For Example- Laptop or Computer.


Types of Robotics

Robotics is an area of interest to human beings for more than one hundred years. On the other hand, our perception of robots is influenced by the media and international film industry (Hollywood). You may ask- what robotics is all about? In my views, a robot’s distinctiveness transforms depending on the atmosphere it works in. Some of these are as follows:


Outer Space
Robotic arms that are under the control of a human being are employed to unload the docking cove of outer-space shuttles to launch satellites or to build a space station.

The Intelligent Home
Robotic systems can nowadays scrutinize home safety, ecological circumstances, and energy consumption. Door & windows can be unlocked mechanically and an electrical device such as lights and A/C can be pre-programmed to turn on. This helps residents to enjoy appliances irrespective of their mobility.

Robots can enter the environments that are injurious to human beings. An illustration is observing the atmosphere within a volcano or investigating our deep marine life. NASA has utilized robotic probe for environmental study, ever since the early 60’s.

Military Robots
Flying robot drones are brought into play for a close watch in present time’s modern armed force. In the future robotic airplane and automobiles could be employed to transmit petroleum, bullets, bombs, etc or clear minefields.

Programmed robots are used by harvesters to cut and collect crops. Robotic milk farms are existing permitting workers to nourish and milk their cattle distantly.

The Car Industry
Robotic arms are used, these arms are able to execute numerous tasks in the car manufacturing & assembling procedure. They carry out jobs such as sorting, cutting, welding, lifting, painting, and bending. Similar functions but on a minor scale are now being intended for the food industry to execute tasks like- the trimming, cutting and processing of different types of meats like- chicken, beef, fish, lamb, etc.

The development of a robotic suit is under construction that will allow nurses to raise patients without injuring their backbones. Scientists in Japan have crafted a power facilitated suit which will provide nurses the additional power that they need to lift patients.

Disaster Areas
Observation robots built-in with superior sensing and imaging gears. This robot can work in dangerous environments like urban site spoiled by earthquakes by inspecting floors, walls, and roofs for structural reality.

Interactive robots that show behaviors and education capability. One such robot is owned by SONY which moves around freely, responds to all your commands, carries your luggage and even responds to your oral instructions.
This is not the end of the Robotic world; there is much more application of Robotics.


Currently, robots perform a number of different jobs in numerous fields and the amount of tasks delegated to robots is rising progressively. The best way to split robots into types is a partition by their application.

1. Industrial robots
These robots bring into play in an industrialized manufacturing atmosphere. Typically these are articulated arms particularly created for applications like- material handling, painting, welding, and others. If we evaluate merely by the application then this sort of robots can also consist of some automatically guided automobiles and other robots.

2. Domestic or household robots
Robots which are used at home. This sort of robots consists of numerous different gears for example- robotic pool cleaners, robotic sweepers, robotic vacuum cleaners, robotic sewer cleaners and other robots that can perform different household tasks. Also, a number of scrutinies and telepresence robots can also be considered as domestic robots if brought into play in that sort of environment.

3. Medical robots
Robots employed in medicine and medicinal institutes. First & foremost surgical treatment robots. Also, a number of robotic directed automobiles and perhaps lifting supporters.

4. Service robots
Robots that cannot be classed into any other types by practice. These could be various data collecting robots, robots prepared to exhibit technologies, robots employed for research, etc.

5. Military robots
Robots brought into play in military & armed forces. This sort of robots consist of bomb discarding robots, various shipping robots, exploration drones. Often robots at the start produced for military and armed forces purposes can be employed in law enforcement, exploration and salvage and other associated fields.

6. Entertainment robots
These types of robots are employed for entertainment. This is an extremely wide-ranging category. It begins with model robots such as Robosapien or the running photo frames and concludes with real heavyweights like articulated robot arms employed as movement simulators.

7. Space robots
I would like to distinct out robots employed in space as a split apart type. This type of robots would consist of the robots employed on Canadarm that was brought into play in space Shuttles, the International Space Station, together with Mars explorers and other robots employed in space exploration & other activities.

8. Hobby and competition robots
Robots that are created by students. Sumo-bots, Line followers, robots prepared merely for learning, fun, and robots prepared for contests.

Now, as you can observe that there are a number of examples that fit well into one or more of these types. For illustration, there can be a deep ocean discovery robot that can collect a number of precious information that can be employed for military or armed forces purpose.

Robotics is a broad field and every day there is a pioneering invention in the field. Robots were invented by the humans just for fun but by now they are used for assisting humans in various sectors. Human beings are better suitable for multifaceted, imaginative, adaptive jobs, and robots are good for dreary, recurring tasks, permitting human beings to do the harder thinking jobs, whereas a robot is employed for substituting humans for various recurring tasks or entertainment to make living more expedient.

Industrial robots for different applications
The application is the type of work that the robot is designed to do. Robot models are created with specific applications or processes in mind. Different applications will have different requirements. For instance, a painting robot will require a small payload but a large movement range and be explosion proof. On the other hand, an assembly robot will have a small workspace but will be very precise and fast. Depending on the target application, the industrial robot will have a specific type of movement, linkage dimension, control law, software and accessory packages. Below are some types of applications:

  • Welding robots
  • motoman welding robot 1
  • Material handling robots
  • delta robot adeptPalletizing robot
  • palletizing robot
  • Painting robot
  • painting robot abb 1
  • Assembly robot
  • assembly robot kuka 1

Serial or parallel industrial robots

Serial robots are the most common. They are composed of a series of joints and linkages that go from the base to the robot tool.
Parallel robots come in many forms. Some call them spider robots. Parallel industrial robots are made in such a way that you can close loops from the base to the tool and back to the base again. It’s like many arms working together with the robot tool. Parallel industrial robots typically have a smaller workspace (try to move your arms around while holding your hands together vs space you can reach with a free arm) but higher accelerations, as the actuators don’t need to be moved: they all sit at the base.

Industrial robot brands
There are many industrial robot brands. The largest ones will have a complete range of robots for different applications and at different sizes. The smallest companies usually target a specific size or application range. Examples of industrial robot brands are:

  • Fanuc
  • Motoman
  • ABB
  • Kuka
  • Denso
  • Adept
  • Comau
  • Kawasaki
  • OTC Daihen

To summarize all of the above, it is possible to have for instance:

  • Scara movement, packaging, parallel, ABB robot
  • 6-axis, welding, serial, Motoman robot

The latest generation: Collaborative industrial robots

There is a new qualifier that has just recently been used to classify an industrial robot, that is to say if it can collaborate with its human co-workers. Collaborative robots are made in such a way that they respect some safety standards so that they cannot hurt a human. While traditional industrial robots generally need to be fenced off away from human co-workers for safety reasons. Collaborative robots can be used in the same environment as humans. They can also usually be taught instead of programmed by an operator. Examples of collaborative robots are:

  • Rethink Robotics Sawyer & Baxter
  • Universal Robots UR3, UR5 & UR10
  • ABB Yumi

Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.

In computer science, AI research is defined as the study of “intelligent agents”: any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of successfully achieving its goals.

Colloquially, the term “artificial intelligence” is applied when a machine mimics “cognitive” functions that humans associate with other human minds, such as “learning” and “problem solving”.